What Is Natural Gas?
Natural gas is gaseous fossil fuel consisting largely of methane. The process which produces natural gas is similar to that which produces petroleum. Both result from the decomposition of marine organisms (plants and animals) in the absence of oxygen and under high pressure.
Natural gas is colorless and odorless. At the processing plant, the gas is purified and measured and its pressure is lowered. When it is marketed for commercial use, a scented substance is added to it which smells slightly different than LPG. This is done to alert people quickly in the event of gas leaks.
The natural gas sector consists of three main segments: supply, transmission and distribution.
Natural gas deposits are generally located near places containing crude oil. The supply segment involves extracting natural gas from underground reservoirs, processing it and transporting it to the national transmission grid.
Gas, in the form of liquid natural gas (LNG) or compressed natural gas (CNG), can be transported via underground pipes or maritime shipping. Transmission refers to the transfer of dry natural gas, ready for use at high pressures via underground pipes to large consumption sites and distribution points, where the pressure is lowered.
Distribution refers to the transfer of low pressure gas from the distribution stations to consumers within the distribution area.
Advantages of Natural Gas:
Natural gas contributes significantly to the country’s economy through:
- Reductions in the national monetary cost of energy;
- Reductions in the strategic dependence on importing petroleum and its byproducts;
- Significant savings compared to other fuels – between 10% and 50% in savings;
- Ease of operation and maintenance;
- Providing a cleaner and greener alternative to fuel oil, LPG, diesel or coal-based
- Significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants in the
various production processes;
- A decrease in NO2, CO2 and SO2 – between 16% and 50%, at a minimum.
Natural Gas Transmission:
Natural gas is transmitted through the national transmission line, which contains highly pressurized gas. At the exit point, the national transmission line connects to the distribution lines that lead to the end consumers. The national transmission line is the main artery of Israel’s natural gas deployment and is managed by Israel Natural Gas Lines Ltd. (INGL), which is fully owned by the State of Israel.
The gas in the national transmission line is transported at a high pressure of between 50 and 80 BAR; in order to connect to customer, a system is needed to reduce and modulate the pressure (PRMS).